How Internet Browsers Work

Have you ever thought about how internet browsers, which are users’ magical doors to the internet world, work? We have explained the working principles and subsystems of internet browsers for you.

Internet browsers It is one of the applications that we use many times every day. We write the name of a website in the address bar and the site we want appears in a few seconds. It seems to work so easily Internet browsers are actually quite complex products with working principles and sub-systems that create miracles in seconds.

Microsoft Edge, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari and Opera are the most used and density of 95% of internet traffic bearing internet browsers. Although the user interfaces look quite different, all internet browsers work on similar principles. For you how internet browsers work We answered the question and explained what you need to know in the simplest way.

How do internet browsers work?

internet browsers

An internet browser accepts the URL (link, link) information written in the address bar, Invokes the URL resource, renders the contents in the resource and displays it for the user. For internet browsers, it would not be wrong to say that it is a bridge between the source and the user.

Accordingly, we can evaluate the working principle of internet browsers in four basic categories: Accepting and calling the URL resource, processing and directing the resource, display the source for the user, store the content taken from the source. Each of the four categories work with different subsystems.

Calling the resource:

internet browsers

The link you type in the address bar of your internet browser, that is, the content in the source to which the URL information belongs. inside a large network layer exists. When the user types the URL information and presses the search button, the internet browser calls the resource using HTTP / FTP protocols from within the network layer.

Data pertaining to the content in the source via a subsystem called the rendering engine byte size It starts coming to the internet browser. The Internet browser caches some data on the source website so that it can be accessed more easily by the user later.

Processing the resource:

Render engine:

internet browsers

Internet browsers that call the source data from the network layer with the URL information, starts processing the data. There are three different subsystems used when processing the resource. These; rendering engine, JavaScript engine and backend system.

The rendering engine processes the data from the source received from the network layer and makes it visible. The render engine is basically HTML, XML and image files it’s working. Each internet browser may use a different rendering engine. Google Chrome and Opera Blink, Mozilla Firefox gecko, Microsoft Edge EdgeHTML, If on safari WebKit It uses the rendering engine.

The render engine translates the source code into a visible object called a DOM tree. DOM tree of the data in the source is the most basic state. With the help of other subsystems, this tree becomes a display of CSS properties, colors, and background.

JavaScript engine:

internet browsers

The render engine renders the DOM tree by rendering simple files such as HTML, XML, and images, while the JavaScript engine Processes JavaScript code and start the imaging process. Of course, throughout this whole process, the backend system manages the database, makes server settings and ensures that the system works in the most efficient way.

Every internet browser different one Can use JavaScript engine. Google Chrome Chrome V8, Safari JavaScriptCore, Mozilla Firefox SpiderMonkey, If Microsoft Edge Chakra It uses the JavaScript engine.

While the JavaScript engine processes JavaScript data in the memory stack, it organizes the operations performed on the call stack. The JavaScript engine can fetch and edit data in these two stacks, analyzing data and processing times, performs basic operations such as optimizing the process, collecting garbage data. Google’s Chrome V8 JavaScript engine is one of the most successful engines in garbage data collection.

View source:

internet browsers

The resource view category is the point at which the user encounters the resource. The data called from the network layer with the URL information was processed by the rendering engines and it was time for the user to view the source. Internet browsers at this point interfaces and browser engines they are using.

Interfaces presented to the user by internet browsers allow users to control the source data. The address bar, forward and back buttons, save, open and close buttons and the main screen where the source data is displayed are the user interfaces of internet browsers. In this respect because there is no standard every internet browser can use a specially designed interface.

The browser engine subsystem allows the user to view the data processed by the rendering engine and the JavaScript engine, and allowing user control is a subsystem. That is, the browser engine is the system that allows the user to interact with the resource one-on-one.

Storing content:

internet browsers

Each internet browser is used to store some data of the resource while displaying the content in the resource. limited data storage capacity. has. The data recorded here are the data taken to the interface of the internet browser in case of a disconnection with the network layer and the data that is cached so that the user can access the resource more easily the next time.

Data stored by internet browsers includes data such as local files, session data, cookies, WebSQL data, IndexedDB files, AppCache data, and service files. These stored data are available in the interface and communication interruption with the network layer still displayed by the user.

Local files and session data generally consist of keys of JavaScript objects. These data unless specially cleaned continues to be stored in the storage area of ​​the internet browser. Storage limits are set at an average of 5 MB per object and 50 MB per site.

Cookies are key data sent by the source. They are exchanged between client and server. Cookies, some performance issues Even if they do, they are important in matters such as privacy and security. WebSQL data, IndexedDB files are essential for performance. Service files are a way for Google to use website data offline.

In summary, how do internet browsers work?

internet browsers

To summarize the working principle and complex subsystems of internet browsers; Internet browsers reach the source in the network layer with the URL information written in the address bar, the data in the source is processed by the rendering engine and the JavaScript engine with the help of the backend system. becomes visible, The processed data is stored in the user interface of the internet browser and is viewed and controlled by the user thanks to the browser engine.

We answered the question of how internet browsers work for you and explained the details you need to know in the simplest way. Easily with one touch It is impossible not to be surprised at the working principle and complex subsystems of internet browsers that unfold the internet world before us.

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